TNO, The Netherlands Organisation of Applied Scientific Research, is an independent not-for-profit research organization in the Netherlands. The TNO expertise group Biobased and Circular Technologies (BCT) focuses on (thermo)chemical conversion of biomass and residues with cascading and biorefinery concepts as guiding principles, and on chemical recycling of plastics. A range of experimental and analytical facilities are available for lab- and pilot-scale R&D. Recent extensions include a sustainable biofuels technology lab for both gasification-based and fractionation-based biofuels technology development. In-house technology development has resulted in patented technologies for, e.g., gasification and gas cleaning (MILENA, OLGA), torrefaction, mild hydrothermal processing (TORWASH) and fractionation (FABIOLA).